Supremacy 1942

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Supremacy 1942

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The Soviet Union finally entered Warsaw on 17 January , after the city was destroyed and abandoned by the Germans.

Over three days, on a broad front incorporating four army fronts , the Red Army launched the Vistula—Oder Offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw.

The Soviets outnumbered the Germans on average by 5— in troops, in artillery, in tanks and in self-propelled artillery.

During the full course of the Vistula—Oder operation 23 days , the Red Army forces sustained , total casualties killed, wounded and missing and lost 1, tanks and assault guns.

On 25 January , Hitler renamed three army groups. In the south, the German attempts, in Operation Konrad , to relieve the encircled garrison at Budapest failed and the city fell on 13 February.

On 6 March, the Germans launched what would be their final major offensive of the war, Operation Spring Awakening , which failed by 16 March.

OKW claim German losses of 77, killed, , wounded and , missing, with a total of , men, on the Eastern Front during January and February The East Prussian operation , though often overshadowed by the Vistula—Oder operation and the later battle for Berlin, was in fact one of the largest and costliest operations fought by the Red Army throughout the war.

During the period it lasted 13 January — 25 April , it cost the Red Army , casualties, and 3, tanks and assault guns.

During the first two weeks of April, the Red Army performed their fastest front redeployment of the war. While this redeployment was in progress, gaps were left in the lines and the remnants of the German 2nd Army, which had been bottled up in a pocket near Danzig, managed to escape across the Oder.

The Soviet offensive had two objectives. Because of Stalin's suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet sphere of influence , the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible.

But the over-riding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken.

Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and part of the German atomic bomb program.

The offensive to capture central Germany and Berlin started on 16 April with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers.

After several days of heavy fighting the Soviet 1BF and 1UF punched holes through the German front line and were fanning out across central Germany.

They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund. On 29 and 30 April, as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself.

Helmuth Weidling , defence commandant of Berlin, surrendered the city to the Soviet forces on 2 May. German losses in this period of the war remain impossible to determine with any reliability.

It included the phrase All forces under German control to cease active operations at hours Central European time on 8 May The war in Europe was over.

In the Soviet Union the end of the war is considered to be 9 May, when the surrender took effect Moscow time. This date is celebrated as a national holiday — Victory Day — in Russia as part of a two-day 8—9 May holiday and some other post-Soviet countries.

The ceremonial Victory parade was held in Moscow on 24 June. The German Army Group Centre initially refused to surrender and continued to fight in Czechoslovakia until about 11 May.

A small German garrison on the Danish island of Bornholm refused to surrender until they were bombed and invaded by the Soviets.

The island was returned to the Danish government four months later. After the German defeat, Joseph Stalin promised his allies Truman and Churchill, that he would attack the Japanese within 90 days of the German surrender.

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria began on 8 August , with an assault on the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and neighbouring Mengjiang ; the greater offensive would eventually include northern Korea , southern Sakhalin , and the Kuril Islands.

Apart from the Battles of Khalkhin Gol , it marked the only military action of the Soviet Union against Imperial Japan ; at the Yalta Conference , it had agreed to Allied pleas to terminate the neutrality pact with Japan and enter the Second World War's Pacific theatre within three months after the end of the war in Europe.

While not a part of the Eastern Front operations, it is included here because the commanders and much of the forces used by the Red Army came from the European Theatre of operations and benefited from the experience gained there.

In many ways this was a 'perfect' operation, delivered with the skill gained during the bitter fighting with the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe over four years.

The distinctly brutal nature of warfare on the Eastern Front was exemplified by an often wilful disregard for human life by both sides.

It was also reflected in the ideological premise for the war, which also saw a momentous clash between two directly opposed ideologies.

Aside from the ideological conflict, the mindframe of the leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union , Hitler and Stalin respectively, contributed to the escalation of terror and murder on an unprecedented scale.

Stalin and Hitler both disregarded human life in order to achieve their goal of victory. This included the terrorisation of their own people, as well as mass deportations of entire populations.

All these factors resulted in tremendous brutality both to combatants and civilians that found no parallel on the Western Front. According to Time magazine : "By measure of manpower, duration, territorial reach and casualties, the Eastern Front was as much as four times the scale of the conflict on the Western Front that opened with the Normandy invasion.

Army Chief of Staff , calculated that without the Eastern Front, the United States would have had to double the number of its soldiers on the Western Front.

In War II Russia occupies a dominant position and is the decisive factor looking toward the defeat of the Axis in Europe.

While in Sicily the forces of Great Britain and the United States are being opposed by 2 German divisions, the Russian front is receiving attention of approximately German divisions.

Whenever the Allies open a second front on the Continent, it will be decidedly a secondary front to that of Russia; theirs will continue to be the main effort.

Without Russia in the war, the Axis cannot be defeated in Europe, and the position of the United Nations becomes precarious.

With Germany crushed, there is no power in Europe to oppose her tremendous military forces. The war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of the affected countries.

Behind the front lines, atrocities against civilians in German-occupied areas were routine, including those carried out as part of the Holocaust.

German and German-allied forces treated civilian populations with exceptional brutality, massacring whole village populations and routinely killing civilian hostages see German war crimes.

According to British historian Geoffrey Hosking , "The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater: since a high proportion of those killed were young men of child-begetting age, the postwar Soviet population was 45 to 50 million smaller than post projections would have led one to expect.

After the war, following the Yalta conference agreements between the Allies, the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia were displaced to the west of the Oder—Neisse line , in what became one of the largest forced migrations of people in world history.

Much of the combat took place in or close to populated areas, and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life and tremendous material damage.

The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1. Wolves and foxes fleeing westward from the killing zone, as the Soviet army advanced between and , were responsible for a rabies epidemic that spread slowly westwards, reaching the coast of the English Channel by The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both ideologically driven states by Soviet communism and by Nazism respectively , in which the foremost political leaders had near-absolute power.

The character of the war was thus determined by the political leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II.

Adolf Hitler exercised tight control over the German war-effort, spending much of his time in his command bunkers most notably at Rastenburg in East Prussia , at Vinnitsa in Ukraine , and under the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.

At crucial periods in the war he held daily situation-conferences at which he used his remarkable talent for public speaking to overwhelm opposition from his generals and from the OKW staff with rhetoric.

In part because of the unexpected degree of German success in the Battle of France despite the warnings of the professional military Hitler believed himself a military genius, with a grasp of the total war-effort that eluded his generals.

In August , when Walther von Brauchitsch commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht and Fedor von Bock appealed for an attack on Moscow, Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine, in order to acquire the farmland, industry, and natural resources of that country.

In the winter of — Hitler believed that his obstinate refusal to allow the German armies to retreat had saved Army Group Centre from collapse.

He later told Erhard Milch :. I had to act ruthlessly. I had to send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge.

And the army is staying at the front. The success of this hedgehog defence outside Moscow led Hitler to insist on the holding of territory when it made no military sense, and to sack generals who retreated without orders.

Officers with initiative were replaced with yes-men or with fanatical Nazis. The disastrous encirclements later in the war — at Stalingrad , Korsun and many other places — resulted directly from Hitler's orders.

This idea of holding territory led to another failed plan, dubbed [ by whom? Many divisions became cut off in "fortress" cities, or wasted uselessly in secondary theatres, because Hitler would not sanction retreat or voluntarily abandon any of his conquests.

Frustration at Hitler's leadership in the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of , but after the failure of the 20 July Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel SS and Nazi party members to prosecute the war.

Hitler's direction of the war ultimately proved disastrous for the German Army, though the skill, loyalty, professionalism and endurance of officers and soldiers enabled him to keep Germany fighting to the end.

Winterbotham wrote of Hitler's signal to Gerd von Rundstedt to continue the attack to the west during the Battle of the Bulge :.

From experience we had learned that when Hitler started refusing to do what the generals recommended, things started to go wrong, and this was to be no exception.

Joseph Stalin bore the greatest responsibility for some of the disasters at the beginning of the war for example, the Battle of Kiev , but equally deserves praise for the subsequent success of the Soviet Red Army , which depended on the unprecedentedly rapid industrialisation of the Soviet Union , which Stalin's internal policy had made the first priority throughout the s.

Stalin's Great Purge of the Red Army in the late s involved the legal prosecution of many of the senior command, many of whom the courts convicted and sentenced to death or to imprisonment.

The executed included Mikhail Tukhachevsky , a proponent of armoured blitzkrieg. Stalin promoted some obscurantists like Grigory Kulik who opposed the mechanisation of the army and the production of tanks, but on the other hand purged the older commanders who had held their positions since the Russian Civil War of —, and who had experience, but were deemed "politically unreliable".

This opened up their places to the promotion of many younger officers that Stalin and the NKVD regarded as in line with Stalinist politics.

Many [ quantify ] of these newly promoted commanders proved terribly inexperienced, but some later became very successful.

Soviet tank-output remained the largest in the world. From the foundation of the Red Army in , political distrust of the military had led to a system of "dual command", with every commander paired with a political commissar , a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Larger units had military councils consisting of the commander, commissar and chief of staff — commissars ensured the loyalty of the commanding officers and implemented Party orders.

Following the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland , of the Baltic states and of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in —, Stalin insisted on the occupation of every fold of the newly Sovietized territories; this move westward positioned troops far from their depots, in salients that left them vulnerable to encirclement.

As tension heightened in spring, , Stalin desperately tried not to give Hitler any provocation that Berlin could use as an excuse for a German attack; Stalin refused to allow the military to go on the alert — even as German troops gathered on the borders and German reconnaissance planes overflew installations.

This refusal to take necessary action was instrumental in the destruction of major portions of the Red Air Force, lined up on its airfields, in the first days of the German-Soviet war.

At the crisis of the war, in the autumn of , Stalin made many concessions to the army: the government restored unitary command by removing the Commissars from the chain of command.

Beginning in autumn , units that had proved themselves by superior performance in combat were given the traditional "Guards" title.

These concessions were combined with ruthless discipline: Order No. Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and to penal companies which carried out especially hazardous duties, such as serving as tramplers to clear Nazi minefields.

As it became clear that the Soviet Union would win the war, Stalin ensured that propaganda always mentioned his leadership of the war; he sidelined the victorious generals and never allowed them to develop into political rivals.

After the war the Soviets once again purged the Red Army though not as brutally as in the s and demoted many successful officers including Zhukov , Malinovsky and Koniev to unimportant positions.

The enormous territorial gains of presented Germany with vast areas to pacify and administer. For the majority of people of the Soviet Union, the Nazi invasion was viewed as a brutal act of unprovoked aggression.

While it is important to note that not all parts of Soviet society viewed the German advance in this way, the majority of the Soviet population viewed German forces as occupiers.

In areas such as Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania which had been annexed by the Soviet Union in the Wehrmacht was tolerated by a relatively more significant part of the native population.

This was particularly true for the territories of Western Ukraine, recently rejoined to the Soviet Union, where the anti-Polish and anti-Soviet Ukrainian nationalist underground hoped in vain to establish the "independent state", relying on German armed force.

However, Soviet society as a whole was hostile to the invading Nazis from the very start. The nascent national liberation movements among Ukrainians and Cossacks , and others were viewed by Hitler with suspicion; some, especially those from the Baltic States, were co-opted into the Axis armies and others brutally suppressed.

None of the conquered territories gained any measure of self-rule. Instead, the Nazi ideologues saw the future of the East as one of settlement by German colonists, with the natives killed, expelled, or reduced to slave labour.

The cruel and brutally inhumane treatment of Soviet civilians, women, children and elderly, the daily bombings of civilian cities and towns, Nazi pillaging of Soviet villages and hamlets and unprecedented harsh punishment and treatment of civilians in general were some of the primary reasons for Soviet resistance to Nazi Germany's invasion.

Indeed, the Soviets viewed Germany's invasion as an act of aggression and an attempt to conquer and enslave the local population.

Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as the Baltic states annexed by the USSR in , Reichscommissariats were established.

As a rule, the maximum in loot was extracted. His opening speech was clear about German policy: "I am known as a brutal dog Our job is to suck from Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of I am expecting from you the utmost severity towards the native population.

Atrocities against the Jewish population in the conquered areas began almost immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen task groups to round up Jews and shoot them.

The massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities were only a part of the deaths from the Nazi occupation. Many hundreds of thousands of Soviet civilians were executed, and millions more died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses.

As they retreated from Ukraine and Belarus in —44, the German occupiers systematically applied a scorched earth policy, burning towns and cities, destroying infrastructure, and leaving civilians to starve or die of exposure.

The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front; it motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets and greatly delayed the formation of German-allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs see Ostlegionen.

These results and missed opportunities contributed to the defeat of the Wehrmacht. Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totalling Military losses of Civilian deaths totalled Additional famine deaths, which totalled one million during —47, are not included here.

These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in — Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite.

Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August The Nazis imposed a brutal regime, deporting some , young people for slave labour, and killing hundreds of thousands civilians more.

Some recent reports raise the number of Belarusians who perished in the war to "3 million thousand people, unlike the former 2.

Sixty percent of Soviet POWs died during the war. By , 80 per cent of civilians and 20 per cent of POWs were freed, others were re-drafted, or sent to labour battalions.

Two per cent of civilians and 14 per cent of the POWs were sent to the Gulag. The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in reported 6,, victims out of a population of 27,, ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses.

Although the Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention , it is generally accepted that it considered itself bound by the provisions of the Hague convention.

This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials. Soviet repressions also contributed into the Eastern Front's death toll. Mass repression occurred in the occupied portions of Poland as well as in the Baltic states and Bessarabia.

Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD massacred large numbers of inmates in most of their prisons in Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, while the remainder was to be evacuated in death marches.

The Soviet victory owed a great deal to the ability of its war industry to outperform the German economy, despite the enormous loss of population and land.

Stalin's five-year plans of the s had resulted in the industrialisation of the Urals and central Asia. In , thousands of trains evacuated critical factories and workers from Belarus and Ukraine to safe areas far from the front lines.

Once these facilities were reassembled east of the Urals, production could be resumed without fear of German bombing. As the Soviet Union's manpower reserves ran low from onwards, the great Soviet offensives had to depend more on equipment and less on the expenditure of lives.

The Germans, on the other hand, could rely on a large slave workforce from the conquered countries and Soviet POWs. American exports and technical expertise also enabled the Soviets to produce goods that they wouldn't have been able to on their own.

German production of explosives from to was 1. Consumption on all fronts during the same period was 1. Soviet armoured fighting vehicle production was greater than the Germans in , the Soviet Union manufactured 24, tanks and self-propelled guns to Germany's 19, The Soviets incrementally upgraded existing designs, and simplified and refined manufacturing processes to increase production, and were helped by a mass infusion of harder to produce goods such as aviation fuel, machine tools, trucks, and high-explosives from Lend-Lease, allowing them to concentrate on a few key industries.

Meanwhile, Germany had been cut off from foreign trade for years by the time it invaded the USSR, was in the middle of two extended and costly theatres at air and sea that further limited production Battle of the Atlantic and Defence of the Reich , and was forced to devote a large segment of its expenditures to goods the Soviets could cut back on such as trucks or which would never even be used against the Soviets such as ships.

This included , trucks, 12, armoured vehicles including 7, tanks , 11, aircraft and 1. Five thousand tanks were provided by the British and Canada.

Total British supplies were about four million tons. After the defeat at Stalingrad, Germany geared completely towards a war economy, as expounded in a speech given by Joseph Goebbels , the Nazi propaganda minister , in the Berlin Sportpalast , increasing production in subsequent years under Albert Speer 's the Reich armaments minister direction, despite the intensifying Allied bombing campaign.

The fighting involved millions of Axis and Soviet troops along the broadest land front in military history. Rüdiger Overmans states that it seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of these men were killed in action and the other half died in Soviet custody.

Over According to the Narkomat of Defence order No. The huge death toll was attributed to several factors, including brutal mistreatment of POWs and captured partisans, the large deficiency of food and medical supplies in Soviet territories, and atrocities committed mostly by the Germans against the civilian population.

The multiple battles and the use of scorched earth tactics destroyed agricultural land , infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food.

According to a report prepared by the General Staff of the Army issued in December , materiel losses in the East from the period of 22 June until November stood at 33, armoured vehicles of all types tanks, assault guns, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and others.

Paul Winter, Defeating Hitler , states "these figures are undoubtedly too low". The Soviets lost 96, tanks, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and assault guns, as well as 37, other armoured vehicles such as armoured cars and semi-tracked trucks for a total of , armoured vehicles lost.

The Soviets also lost , aircraft combat and non-combat causes , including 46, in combat. Polish Armed Forces in the East , initially consisting of Poles from Eastern Poland or otherwise in the Soviet Union in —, began fighting alongside the Red Army in , and grew steadily as more Polish territory was liberated from the Nazis in — When the Axis countries of Central Europe were occupied by the Soviets, they changed sides and declared war on Germany see Allied Commissions.

Widespread access to the Internet has led to a dramatic increase in white supremacist websites. White separatism is a political and social movement that seeks the separation of white people from people of other races and ethnicities , the establishment of a white ethnostate by removing non-whites from existing communities or by forming new communities elsewhere.

Most modern researchers do not view white separatism as distinct from white supremacist beliefs.

The Anti-Defamation League defines white separatism as "a form of white supremacy"; [] the Southern Poverty Law Center defines both white nationalism and white separatism as "ideologies based on white supremacy.

Use of the term to self-identify has been criticized as a dishonest rhetorical ploy. The Anti-Defamation League argues that white supremacists use the phrase because they believe it has fewer negative connotations than the term white supremacist.

They argued the existence of "a distinction between the white supremacist's desire to dominate as in apartheid , slavery , or segregation and complete separation by race".

The Tuskegee Institute has estimated that 3, blacks were the victims of lynchings in the United States between and , with the peak occurring in the s at a time of economic stress in the South and increasing political suppression of blacks.

If 1, whites were also lynched during this period, blacks were disproportionally targeted, representing Wood, "lynching photographs constructed and perpetuated white supremacist ideology by creating permanent images of a controlled white citizenry juxtaposed to images of helpless and powerless black men.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from White supremacies. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 December Racist belief in the superiority of white people.

General forms. Related topics. Allophilia Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege.

Main category: White supremacy in the United States. See also: Racism in the United States. Main article: White supremacy in U.

Further information: Apartheid and Baasskap. Francis Nick Griffin Michael H. Retrieved November 11, Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern culture poses special challenges for them.

In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white is to be distinct from those marked as non-white, yet the placement of the distinguishing line has varied significantly in different times and places.

NYU Press. White Supremacy. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. The Guardian. September 3, That in this free government all white men are and of right ought to be entitled to equal civil and political rights; that the servitude of the African race, as existing in these States, is mutually beneficial to both bond and free, and is abundantly authorized and justified by the experience of mankind, and the revealed will of the Almighty Creator, as recognized by all Christian nations; while the destruction of the existing relations between the two races, as advocated by our sectional enemies, would bring inevitable calamities upon both and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states.

Stephens Vice President of the Confederate States , March 21, , Savannah, Georgia Archived November 17, , at the Wayback Machine : "Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery—subordination to the superior race—is his natural and normal condition.

Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux Nation". Archived from the original on December 9, Retrieved Full text of both, with commentary by professor A.

Saito The U. National Archives and Records Administration. August 7, Archived from the original press release on October 4, Retrieved October 3, Majority opinion.

Loving v. Racial Attitudes in America: Trends and Interpretations. Harvard University Press. The questions deal with most of the major racial issues that became focal in the middle of the twentieth century: integration of public accommodations, school integration, residential integration, and job discrimination [and] racial intermarriage and willingness to vote for a black presidential candidate.

The figure shows that there ha been a massive and continuing movement of the American public from overwhelming acceptance of the principle of segregated schooling in the early s toward acceptance of the principle of integrated schooling.

Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Selected Readings. Pine Forge Press. In only 42 percent of a national sample of whites reported that they believed blacks to be equal to whites in innate intelligence; since the late s, however, around 80 percent of white Americans have rejected the idea of inherent black inferiority.

New Left Review. Guilford Publications. Bring the war home: The white power movement and paramilitary America. The white power movement that emerged from the Vietnam era shared some common attributes with earlier racist movements in the United States, but it was no mere echo.

Unlike previous iterations of the Ku Klux Klan and white supremacist vigilantism, the white power movement did not claim to serve the state.

Instead, white power made the state its target, declaring war against the federal government in The Nation. Retrieved August 11, PBS NewsHour.

New Left Review : New York: Random House. Dec 1, December 13, Christopher, Land, Roderic R. OCLC Social and Economic Studies.

ISSN Carter Godwin Wargame is a free strategy browser game that takes place during World War II. As commander in chief, you lead your own nation in Wargame Push your army through the borders of the continent and conquer nations.

Build your base and upgrade it constantly. The war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of the affected countries.

Behind the front lines, atrocities against civilians in German-occupied areas were routine, including those carried out as part of the Holocaust.

German and German-allied forces treated civilian populations with exceptional brutality, massacring whole village populations and routinely killing civilian hostages see German war crimes.

According to British historian Geoffrey Hosking , "The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater: since a high proportion of those killed were young men of child-begetting age, the postwar Soviet population was 45 to 50 million smaller than post projections would have led one to expect.

After the war, following the Yalta conference agreements between the Allies, the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia were displaced to the west of the Oder—Neisse line , in what became one of the largest forced migrations of people in world history.

Much of the combat took place in or close to populated areas, and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life and tremendous material damage.

The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1. Wolves and foxes fleeing westward from the killing zone, as the Soviet army advanced between and , were responsible for a rabies epidemic that spread slowly westwards, reaching the coast of the English Channel by The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both ideologically driven states by Soviet communism and by Nazism respectively , in which the foremost political leaders had near-absolute power.

The character of the war was thus determined by the political leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II.

Adolf Hitler exercised tight control over the German war-effort, spending much of his time in his command bunkers most notably at Rastenburg in East Prussia , at Vinnitsa in Ukraine , and under the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.

At crucial periods in the war he held daily situation-conferences at which he used his remarkable talent for public speaking to overwhelm opposition from his generals and from the OKW staff with rhetoric.

In part because of the unexpected degree of German success in the Battle of France despite the warnings of the professional military Hitler believed himself a military genius, with a grasp of the total war-effort that eluded his generals.

In August , when Walther von Brauchitsch commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht and Fedor von Bock appealed for an attack on Moscow, Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine, in order to acquire the farmland, industry, and natural resources of that country.

In the winter of — Hitler believed that his obstinate refusal to allow the German armies to retreat had saved Army Group Centre from collapse.

He later told Erhard Milch :. I had to act ruthlessly. I had to send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge.

And the army is staying at the front. The success of this hedgehog defence outside Moscow led Hitler to insist on the holding of territory when it made no military sense, and to sack generals who retreated without orders.

Officers with initiative were replaced with yes-men or with fanatical Nazis. The disastrous encirclements later in the war — at Stalingrad , Korsun and many other places — resulted directly from Hitler's orders.

This idea of holding territory led to another failed plan, dubbed [ by whom? Many divisions became cut off in "fortress" cities, or wasted uselessly in secondary theatres, because Hitler would not sanction retreat or voluntarily abandon any of his conquests.

Frustration at Hitler's leadership in the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of , but after the failure of the 20 July Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel SS and Nazi party members to prosecute the war.

Hitler's direction of the war ultimately proved disastrous for the German Army, though the skill, loyalty, professionalism and endurance of officers and soldiers enabled him to keep Germany fighting to the end.

Winterbotham wrote of Hitler's signal to Gerd von Rundstedt to continue the attack to the west during the Battle of the Bulge :.

From experience we had learned that when Hitler started refusing to do what the generals recommended, things started to go wrong, and this was to be no exception.

Joseph Stalin bore the greatest responsibility for some of the disasters at the beginning of the war for example, the Battle of Kiev , but equally deserves praise for the subsequent success of the Soviet Red Army , which depended on the unprecedentedly rapid industrialisation of the Soviet Union , which Stalin's internal policy had made the first priority throughout the s.

Stalin's Great Purge of the Red Army in the late s involved the legal prosecution of many of the senior command, many of whom the courts convicted and sentenced to death or to imprisonment.

The executed included Mikhail Tukhachevsky , a proponent of armoured blitzkrieg. Stalin promoted some obscurantists like Grigory Kulik who opposed the mechanisation of the army and the production of tanks, but on the other hand purged the older commanders who had held their positions since the Russian Civil War of —, and who had experience, but were deemed "politically unreliable".

This opened up their places to the promotion of many younger officers that Stalin and the NKVD regarded as in line with Stalinist politics.

Many [ quantify ] of these newly promoted commanders proved terribly inexperienced, but some later became very successful.

Soviet tank-output remained the largest in the world. From the foundation of the Red Army in , political distrust of the military had led to a system of "dual command", with every commander paired with a political commissar , a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Larger units had military councils consisting of the commander, commissar and chief of staff — commissars ensured the loyalty of the commanding officers and implemented Party orders.

Following the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland , of the Baltic states and of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in —, Stalin insisted on the occupation of every fold of the newly Sovietized territories; this move westward positioned troops far from their depots, in salients that left them vulnerable to encirclement.

As tension heightened in spring, , Stalin desperately tried not to give Hitler any provocation that Berlin could use as an excuse for a German attack; Stalin refused to allow the military to go on the alert — even as German troops gathered on the borders and German reconnaissance planes overflew installations.

This refusal to take necessary action was instrumental in the destruction of major portions of the Red Air Force, lined up on its airfields, in the first days of the German-Soviet war.

At the crisis of the war, in the autumn of , Stalin made many concessions to the army: the government restored unitary command by removing the Commissars from the chain of command.

Beginning in autumn , units that had proved themselves by superior performance in combat were given the traditional "Guards" title.

These concessions were combined with ruthless discipline: Order No. Infractions by military and politruks were punished with transferral to penal battalions and to penal companies which carried out especially hazardous duties, such as serving as tramplers to clear Nazi minefields.

As it became clear that the Soviet Union would win the war, Stalin ensured that propaganda always mentioned his leadership of the war; he sidelined the victorious generals and never allowed them to develop into political rivals.

After the war the Soviets once again purged the Red Army though not as brutally as in the s and demoted many successful officers including Zhukov , Malinovsky and Koniev to unimportant positions.

The enormous territorial gains of presented Germany with vast areas to pacify and administer. For the majority of people of the Soviet Union, the Nazi invasion was viewed as a brutal act of unprovoked aggression.

While it is important to note that not all parts of Soviet society viewed the German advance in this way, the majority of the Soviet population viewed German forces as occupiers.

In areas such as Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania which had been annexed by the Soviet Union in the Wehrmacht was tolerated by a relatively more significant part of the native population.

This was particularly true for the territories of Western Ukraine, recently rejoined to the Soviet Union, where the anti-Polish and anti-Soviet Ukrainian nationalist underground hoped in vain to establish the "independent state", relying on German armed force.

However, Soviet society as a whole was hostile to the invading Nazis from the very start. The nascent national liberation movements among Ukrainians and Cossacks , and others were viewed by Hitler with suspicion; some, especially those from the Baltic States, were co-opted into the Axis armies and others brutally suppressed.

None of the conquered territories gained any measure of self-rule. Instead, the Nazi ideologues saw the future of the East as one of settlement by German colonists, with the natives killed, expelled, or reduced to slave labour.

The cruel and brutally inhumane treatment of Soviet civilians, women, children and elderly, the daily bombings of civilian cities and towns, Nazi pillaging of Soviet villages and hamlets and unprecedented harsh punishment and treatment of civilians in general were some of the primary reasons for Soviet resistance to Nazi Germany's invasion.

Indeed, the Soviets viewed Germany's invasion as an act of aggression and an attempt to conquer and enslave the local population.

Regions closer to the front were managed by military powers of the region, in other areas such as the Baltic states annexed by the USSR in , Reichscommissariats were established.

As a rule, the maximum in loot was extracted. His opening speech was clear about German policy: "I am known as a brutal dog Our job is to suck from Ukraine all the goods we can get hold of I am expecting from you the utmost severity towards the native population.

Atrocities against the Jewish population in the conquered areas began almost immediately, with the dispatch of Einsatzgruppen task groups to round up Jews and shoot them.

The massacres of Jews and other ethnic minorities were only a part of the deaths from the Nazi occupation. Many hundreds of thousands of Soviet civilians were executed, and millions more died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses.

As they retreated from Ukraine and Belarus in —44, the German occupiers systematically applied a scorched earth policy, burning towns and cities, destroying infrastructure, and leaving civilians to starve or die of exposure.

The Nazi ideology and the maltreatment of the local population and Soviet POWs encouraged partisans fighting behind the front; it motivated even anti-communists or non-Russian nationalists to ally with the Soviets and greatly delayed the formation of German-allied divisions consisting of Soviet POWs see Ostlegionen.

These results and missed opportunities contributed to the defeat of the Wehrmacht. Vadim Erlikman has detailed Soviet losses totalling Military losses of Civilian deaths totalled Additional famine deaths, which totalled one million during —47, are not included here.

These losses are for the entire territory of the USSR including territories annexed in — Belarus lost a quarter of its pre-war population, including practically all its intellectual elite.

Following bloody encirclement battles, all of the present-day Belarus territory was occupied by the Germans by the end of August The Nazis imposed a brutal regime, deporting some , young people for slave labour, and killing hundreds of thousands civilians more.

Some recent reports raise the number of Belarusians who perished in the war to "3 million thousand people, unlike the former 2.

Sixty percent of Soviet POWs died during the war. By , 80 per cent of civilians and 20 per cent of POWs were freed, others were re-drafted, or sent to labour battalions.

Two per cent of civilians and 14 per cent of the POWs were sent to the Gulag. The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in reported 6,, victims out of a population of 27,, ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses.

Although the Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention , it is generally accepted that it considered itself bound by the provisions of the Hague convention.

This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials. Soviet repressions also contributed into the Eastern Front's death toll. Mass repression occurred in the occupied portions of Poland as well as in the Baltic states and Bessarabia.

Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD massacred large numbers of inmates in most of their prisons in Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, while the remainder was to be evacuated in death marches.

The Soviet victory owed a great deal to the ability of its war industry to outperform the German economy, despite the enormous loss of population and land.

Stalin's five-year plans of the s had resulted in the industrialisation of the Urals and central Asia. In , thousands of trains evacuated critical factories and workers from Belarus and Ukraine to safe areas far from the front lines.

Once these facilities were reassembled east of the Urals, production could be resumed without fear of German bombing. As the Soviet Union's manpower reserves ran low from onwards, the great Soviet offensives had to depend more on equipment and less on the expenditure of lives.

The Germans, on the other hand, could rely on a large slave workforce from the conquered countries and Soviet POWs. American exports and technical expertise also enabled the Soviets to produce goods that they wouldn't have been able to on their own.

German production of explosives from to was 1. Consumption on all fronts during the same period was 1.

Soviet armoured fighting vehicle production was greater than the Germans in , the Soviet Union manufactured 24, tanks and self-propelled guns to Germany's 19, The Soviets incrementally upgraded existing designs, and simplified and refined manufacturing processes to increase production, and were helped by a mass infusion of harder to produce goods such as aviation fuel, machine tools, trucks, and high-explosives from Lend-Lease, allowing them to concentrate on a few key industries.

Meanwhile, Germany had been cut off from foreign trade for years by the time it invaded the USSR, was in the middle of two extended and costly theatres at air and sea that further limited production Battle of the Atlantic and Defence of the Reich , and was forced to devote a large segment of its expenditures to goods the Soviets could cut back on such as trucks or which would never even be used against the Soviets such as ships.

This included , trucks, 12, armoured vehicles including 7, tanks , 11, aircraft and 1. Five thousand tanks were provided by the British and Canada.

Total British supplies were about four million tons. After the defeat at Stalingrad, Germany geared completely towards a war economy, as expounded in a speech given by Joseph Goebbels , the Nazi propaganda minister , in the Berlin Sportpalast , increasing production in subsequent years under Albert Speer 's the Reich armaments minister direction, despite the intensifying Allied bombing campaign.

The fighting involved millions of Axis and Soviet troops along the broadest land front in military history. Rüdiger Overmans states that it seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of these men were killed in action and the other half died in Soviet custody.

Over According to the Narkomat of Defence order No. The huge death toll was attributed to several factors, including brutal mistreatment of POWs and captured partisans, the large deficiency of food and medical supplies in Soviet territories, and atrocities committed mostly by the Germans against the civilian population.

The multiple battles and the use of scorched earth tactics destroyed agricultural land , infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food.

According to a report prepared by the General Staff of the Army issued in December , materiel losses in the East from the period of 22 June until November stood at 33, armoured vehicles of all types tanks, assault guns, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and others.

Paul Winter, Defeating Hitler , states "these figures are undoubtedly too low". The Soviets lost 96, tanks, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and assault guns, as well as 37, other armoured vehicles such as armoured cars and semi-tracked trucks for a total of , armoured vehicles lost.

The Soviets also lost , aircraft combat and non-combat causes , including 46, in combat. Polish Armed Forces in the East , initially consisting of Poles from Eastern Poland or otherwise in the Soviet Union in —, began fighting alongside the Red Army in , and grew steadily as more Polish territory was liberated from the Nazis in — When the Axis countries of Central Europe were occupied by the Soviets, they changed sides and declared war on Germany see Allied Commissions.

Most of those who joined were Soviet POWs. These foreign volunteers in the Wermacht were primarily used in the Eastern Front but some were assigned to guard the beaches of Normandy.

Hitler's notorious Commissar Order called for Soviet political commissars, who were responsible for ensuring that Red Army units remained politically reliable, to be summarily shot when identified amongst captured troops.

Axis troops who captured Red Army soldiers frequently shot them in the field or shipped them to concentration camps to be used as forced labourers or killed.

It is estimated that between 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Soviet Offensive For a discussion of the term itself, see Great Patriotic War term.

Soviet occupation of Central and Eastern Europe. Finland until Soviet Union Czechoslovakia Poland. Air and naval support :. Eastern Front.

Soviet leadership. Related topics. Main article: Germany—Soviet Union relations, — See also: Aufbau Ost and Lossberg study.

Main article: Operation Barbarossa. Soviet gains. German gains. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Battle of Kursk.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Main article: Soviet invasion of Manchuria. Main article: Adolf Hitler. Main article: Joseph Stalin. From there Hungary became a German puppet state until the end of the war.

The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 November Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. The USSR sustained Moscow According to the same source, total Soviet civilian deaths within post-war borders amounted to The numbers for other Central European and German civilian casualties are not included here.

Greenwood Publishing Group. Leiden, Boston: Brill. We begin where we ended six centuries ago. We stop the perpetual Germanic march towards the south and west of Europe, and have the view on the country in the east.

We finally put the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-war and go over to the territorial policy of the future. But if we speak today in Europe of new land, we can primarily only to Russia and the border states subjects him think.

Central European History. Source: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Vol. Stuart Stein, University of the West of England.

Archived from the original on 2 March Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death … interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves for our Kultur

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Supremacy 1942
Supremacy 1942

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